Shortest Path using Bellman Ford Algorithm

C++ Program to Use the Bellman Ford Algorithm to Find the Shortest Path Between Two Vertices. Assuming that Negative Size Edges Exist in the Graph

Here is source code of the C++ Program to Use the Bellman Ford Algorithm to Find the Shortest Path Between Two Vertices Assuming that Negative Size Edges existing the Graph.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <limits.h>

// structure to represent a weighted edge in graph
struct Edge
{
        int src, dest, weight;
};

// a structure to represent a connected, directed and weighted graph
struct Graph
{
        // V-> Number of vertices, E-> Number of edges
        int V, E;

        // graph is represented as an array of edges.
        struct Edge* edge;
};

// Creates a graph with V vertices and E edges
struct Graph* createGraph(int V, int E)
{
    struct Graph* graph = (struct Graph*) malloc(sizeof(struct Graph));
    graph->V = V;
    graph->E = E;

    graph->edge = (struct Edge*) malloc(graph->E * sizeof(struct Edge));

    return graph;
}

// A utility function used to print the solution
void printArr(int dist[], int n)
{
    printf("Vertex   Distance from Sourcen");
    for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
        printf("%d tt %dn", i, dist[i]);
}

// The main function that finds shortest distances from src to all other
// vertices using Bellman-Ford algorithm.  The function also detects negative
// weight cycle
void BellmanFord(struct Graph* graph, int src)
{
    int V = graph->V;
    int E = graph->E;
    int dist[V];

    // Step 1: Initialize distances from src to all other vertices as INFINITE
    for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
        dist[i] = INT_MAX;
    dist[src] = 0;

    // Step 2: Relax all edges |V| - 1 times. A simple shortest path from src
    // to any other vertex can have at-most |V| - 1 edges
    for (int i = 1; i <= V - 1; i++)
    {
        for (int j = 0; j < E; j++)
        {
            int u = graph->edge[j].src;
            int v = graph->edge[j].dest;
            int weight = graph->edge[j].weight;
            if (dist[u] != INT_MAX && dist[u] + weight < dist[v])
                dist[v] = dist[u] + weight;
        }
    }

    // Step 3: check for negative-weight cycles.  The above step guarantees
    // shortest distances if graph doesn't contain negative weight cycle.
    // If we get a shorter path, then there is a cycle.
    for (int i = 0; i < E; i++)
    {
        int u = graph->edge[i].src;
        int v = graph->edge[i].dest;
        int weight = graph->edge[i].weight;
        if (dist[u] != INT_MAX && dist[u] + weight < dist[v])
            printf("Graph contains negative weight cycle");
    }

    printArr(dist, V);

    return;
}

// Driver program to test above functions
int main()
{
    /* Let us create the graph given in above example */
    int V = 5; // Number of vertices in graph
    int E = 8; // Number of edges in graph
    struct Graph* graph = createGraph(V, E);

    // add edge 0-1 (or A-B in above figure)
    graph->edge[0].src = 0;
    graph->edge[0].dest = 1;
    graph->edge[0].weight = -1;

    // add edge 0-2 (or A-C in above figure)
    graph->edge[1].src = 0;
    graph->edge[1].dest = 2;
    graph->edge[1].weight = 4;

    // add edge 1-2 (or B-C in above figure)
    graph->edge[2].src = 1;
    graph->edge[2].dest = 2;
    graph->edge[2].weight = 3;

    // add edge 1-3 (or B-D in above figure)
    graph->edge[3].src = 1;
    graph->edge[3].dest = 3;
    graph->edge[3].weight = 2;

    // add edge 1-4 (or A-E in above figure)
    graph->edge[4].src = 1;
    graph->edge[4].dest = 4;
    graph->edge[4].weight = 2;

    // add edge 3-2 (or D-C in above figure)
    graph->edge[5].src = 3;
    graph->edge[5].dest = 2;
    graph->edge[5].weight = 5;

    // add edge 3-1 (or D-B in above figure)
    graph->edge[6].src = 3;
    graph->edge[6].dest = 1;
    graph->edge[6].weight = 1;

    // add edge 4-3 (or E-D in above figure)
    graph->edge[7].src = 4;
    graph->edge[7].dest = 3;
    graph->edge[7].weight = -3;

    BellmanFord(graph, 0);

    return 0;
}

 

OUTPUT:

Vertex   Distance from Source
0        0
1        -1
2        2
3        -2
4        1

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