Cytogenetics Questions and Answers – Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting

This set of Cytogenetics Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting”.

1. Flow cytometry uses_____________
a) Heavy isotope
b) Radioactive elements
c) Immunological techniques
d) Energy content
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The process of flow cytometry is based on immune fluorescence where a laser is used to irradiate the fluorescent particle bound to a particle that determines its fete.

2. In flow cytometry which of the combination is impossible?
a) Both the labeled antigens in same particle
b) None of the labeled antigens on a particle
c) One of the labeled antigen
d) All can be true
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In flow cytometry we can have all the above combinations. The cells can even be sorted according to the antigens present on them.

3. In a flow cytometer the particles are analyzed all at a time.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: It is ensured by dilution that in a flow cytometer the particles pass in a single file. Then they are individually identified and sorted.

4. In human normal B and T cells develop the CDC4+ and CDC8+ first and then they differentiate to CDC4+ CDC- and CDC4- CDC+. If there is a defect in development which quadrant in the flow cytometer graph will show more density?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Quadrant 2 is the part of the graph where we see both the labels being positive. So in this case mal developement will mean that this quadrant will have higher density.

5. How are the cells sorted?
a) By dilution plating untill there are only single cell in each well of microtitre plate
b) By the differential weight
c) By electrostatic force
d) By magnetic force
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: As the cells exit the nozzle of the flow cytometer a small amount of charge is added to the droplet. Then it passes between the two places which induce the droplet to be properly separated depending on its label.

6. In a flow cytometer you will see the cells lacking both the labels in ____________ quadrant.
a) 1st
b) 2nd
c) 3rd
d) 4th
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In the 1st quadrant and 4th quadrant one of the two labels are active. In the 2nd both are active and in the 3rd none of the labels are present on the molecule.

7. Which fluorescent dye can be used for red fluorescence?
a) Rhodamine
b) Fluorescein
c) Carmine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The Rhodamine gives red fluorescence while the fluorescein gives a green florescence. Carmine is a red dye that is used in food but its not used for immunological methods. DAPI stains the nucleus blue.

8. Which of the following drigs effect caspases?
a) Oblimerson
b) Pikan083
c) Tenovin
d) Apoptin
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Apoptin, a caspase-inducing agent, has been reported to induce apoptosis in malignant but not in normal cells. Small molecules caspase activators are peptides which contain the arginine-glycine-aspartate motif. They induce activation of procaspase 3.

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What is the WWE Network

Java Tutorial Point | Javatpoint Java | Core Java Tutorialspoint | Java Programming: What is the WWE Network


What is the WWE Network

The announcement by WWE back in February, 24, 2014, that it was intending to launch its own Nefflix-like streaming service was met with skepticism. Quite a few could have foreseen the growth we have witnessed over the 4 years since its launch. The platform referred to as the WWE Network would allow the WWE Universe to enjoy streaming services of WWE content upon subscription. With more than 2 million subscribers today, the streaming service has significantly increased the revenues generated by the WWE Corporation. Subscribers pay a monthly subscription fee of about $10 – $15 and they reserve the right to cancel their subscription at any time Besides, the first month of subscription is free. Prior to delving into the increase in the number of subscribers to the Network, it is imperative to have a basic understanding of the platform. 
What is the WWE Network? WWE Network is a Netflix-like streaming service that is owned by the WWE. It allows the WWE Universe to stream videos from WWE. These videos range from pay per view events like the recent WrestleMania and the upcoming Greatest Royal Rumble in Saudi Arabia later this month and Backlash in May all for free upon subscription. Subscribers also have access to unlimited WWEs premium content that is available anytime, anywhere and on any device. They also have access to WWE documentaries, original series, reality shows and in ring specials like Cruiserweight Classic in addition to the exclusive access to the weekly in ring premier shows. They may also enjoy replays of their favourite SmackOown live and Raw episodes that are available on demand for 30 days following the airing of the episode. WWE Network allows the WWE Universe to watch current WWE content and even WWE shows from decades ago. It allows subscribers to get entertained by ensuring they get access to 10,000+ hours of WWE content. 
Growth of the VVWE Network. After somewhat of a teaser back in 2011, the WWE finally launched the WWE Network in the early months of 2014. It was launched in February, 24, 2014, in the US and it came with a free trial period in the week of the launch. In April, 2014, WWE Corporation announced that the streaming service had already gotten 667,000 subscribers. This was just shy of the 1 million subscribers targeted to break even. This shortfall had adverse effects on investors and in an effort to allay their fears, WWE opted to offer yet another free preview week of the Network. This was solely intended to increase the number of subscribers. Later in July, the WWE in their financial report indicated that they had gotten a total of 700,000 subscribers. The company had set its sights in attaining more than 1 million subscribers before the start of 2015. In July, 2014, WWE announced a deal that would see the corporation distribute the Network as a premium television service. On the same day, the platform expanded to other countries like Spain, New Zealand and Singapore among others. Further expansion followed or was scheduled along the years. These expansions were in an effort to increase the potential user bas. Today, the Network has coverage in about 190 countries worldwide. As of October, 30, 2014, the subscription to the streaming service stood at around 731,000 subscribers. In an attempt to further increase this number, the company dropped the mandatory 6-month subscription and subscribers were then allowed to cancel their subscriptions at any time An announcement by the WWE towards the and of January, 2015 put the subscription to the streaming service at more than a million. Vince McMahon promised subscribers that the company would focus on adding value and more content to the platform in the course of the year. Later in February, the company launched the Network in North Africa and in the Middle East as a premium service. During the trading period report of the second quarter of 2015, the VVWE reported that the Network had 1.156 million subscribers. This was a 13% decline from the 1.315 million subscribers reported in the first quarter of the trading period. The 1.156 million reported subscribers represented the paid subscribers. However, in addition to the trial subscribers, the gross subscription to the Network stood at 1227 million users. A report by Park Associates in November, 2015, showed that the VVWE Network had entered the top 5 of streaming service. This was an incredible achievement and the platform only came second in the sports category behind The WWE announced that the Network had 1.949 million subscribers in April, 2017. In this figure, 1.661 were paid subscribers. Close to 70% of the subscribers to the WWE Network are from the States. Only about 30% come from other countries. To try and curb this and to increase the number of subscribers to the Network, WWE has tried to ensure that there is coverage of the streaming service worldwide. The Network is available in about 191 countries. It is unavailable in only 13 countries though its coverage in China is limited to Hong Kong. In April, 9, 2018, WWE announced that subscription to its streaming service had reached a record 2.12 million subscribers. This rise could be mainly attributed to the iconic WrestleMania pay per view event that had taken place the previous day. Within this figure, about 1A1 million were paid subscribers. The increase in the total paid subscribers to the WWE Network has seen significant increase in the revenues generated by the WWE. According to the projections of the first quarter of this year (2018), the company expects revenues from the Network to exceed $30 million 01BDA. The WWE also expects an increase in the number of paid subscribers to about 177 million by the end of the second quarter of this year. The company predicts that the income generated from the Network would exceed the anticipated $140 million by about $5 million. 
The WWE Network continues to be an valuable asset for both WWE Corporation and the WWE Universe. The streaming service allows subscribers access to unlimited WWE content plus free live coverage of all pay per view events. The streaming services offered have proven quite attractive as the number of subscribers keeps growing and is expected to continue growing and possibly surpass the 2 million mark for paid subscribers by the end of this year 

Java Convert int Array To String Example


Java Convert int Array To String Example

This Java Convert int Array To String example shows how to find convert an array of int

to a String in Java.



import java.util.Arrays;


public class ConvertIntArrayToStringExample {


public static void main(String args[]){

//int array

int[] intNumbers = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5};


* First approach is to loop through all elements of an int array

* and append them to StringBuffer object one by one. At the end,

* use toString method to convert it to String.


//create new StringBuffer object

StringBuffer sbfNumbers = new StringBuffer();

//define the separator you want in the string. This example uses space.

String strSeparator = ” “;

if(intNumbers.length > 0){

//we do not want leading space for first element



* Loop through the elements of an int array. Please

* note that loop starts from 1 not from 0 because we

* already appended the first element without leading space.s


for(int i=1; i < intNumbers.length; i++){




System.out.println(“int array converted to String using for loop”);

//finally convert StringBuffer to String using toString method



* Second options is to use Arrays class as given below.

* Use Arrays.toString method to convert int array to String.


* However, it will return String like [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]


String strNumbers = Arrays.toString(intNumbers);

System.out.println(“String generated from Arrays.toString method: “ + strNumbers);

//you can use replaceAll method to replace brackets and commas

strNumbers = strNumbers.replaceAll(“, “, strSeparator).replace(“[“, “”).replace(“]”, “”);

System.out.println(“Final String: “ + strNumbers);





Output of above given convert int array to String example would be

int array converted to String using for loop

1 2 3 4 5

String generated from Arrays.toString method: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Final String: 1 2 3 4 5


StringBuffer Trim Java Example

StringBuffer Trim Java Example
This example shows how to trim StringBuffer object in Java using substring method.

public class JavaStringBufferTrimExample {

public static void main(String[] args) {

//create StringBuffer object
StringBuffer sbf = new StringBuffer(" Hello World ! ");

* Method 1: convert StringBuffer to string and use trim method of
* String.

String str = sbf.toString().trim();

System.out.println("StringBuffer trim: "" + str +"""""");

Molecular Biology Questions and Answers – Recombination in Higher Organisms – 2

This set of Molecular Biology Question Paper focuses on “Recombination in Higher Organisms – 2”.

1. What is the central protein of homologous recombination?
a) RecB
b) RecD
c) RecA
d) RecC
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: RecA is the central protein of homologous recombination. It is the founding member of a family of enzymes called the strand exchange protein.

2. What is the joint molecule?
a) RecB of the RecBCD pathway
b) B DNA
c) Z DNA
d) Rec A bound three stranded structure
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The RecA bound three stranded structure is known as the joint molecule. It usually contains several hundred base pairs of hybrid DNA.

3. The RuvAB complex specifically recognizes the Holliday junction in a ATP dependent manner.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: RuvA recognizes and binds to the Holliday junction and recruits RuvB protein to this site. RuvB is a hexameric ATPase thus making the process an ATP dependent one.

4. Which component cleaves the specific DNA strands at the Holliday junction?
a) RuvC
b) RuvD
c) RuvA
d) RuvB
View Answer

Explanation: RuvC recognizes the Holliday junction. It specifically nicks two of the homologous DNA strands that have the same polarity.

5. After cleaved by RuvC the resulting ligated recombination products will only be the splice product.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Depending on which pair of strands is cleaved by RuvC the resulting recombinant product will depend. It either forms a spliced product or a patched product.

6. What is the cleavage site of RuvC?
a) 5’….A/TTTG/C….3’
b) 5’….G/TTTC/T….3’
c) 5’….T/TGCG/C….3’
d) 5’….C/ATTG/T….3’
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Cleavage by RuvC takes place at sites conforming to the consensus sequence 5’….A/TTTG/C….3’. cleavage occurs after the second T in this sequence.

7. What is the source of energy during the action of SPO11?
a) Cleavage of peptide bond
b) Cleavage of amide bond
c) Cleavage of glycoside bond
d) Cleavage of phosphodiester bond
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: During the action of SPO11 the cleavage of DNA phosphodiester bond is stored in the bound protein-DNA linkage. By this process the DNA strands can be released.

8. What are the components of the MRX protein?
a) MreII, Rad50, Xrs2
b) Rad51, Rad52, Rad59
c) RecA, RuvC, RuvAB
d) Rad51C, WRN, BLH
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: MRX enzyme complex is used for the event of DNA processing. It is composed of protein subunits, MreII, Rad50 and Xrs2. The first letters of the subunits gives the complex its name.

9. Processing of the DNA at the break site occurs at the 3’ end.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Processing of the DNA at the break site occurs exclusively at the 5’ terminus. The strand ic covalently attached to the Spo11 protein.

10. How many cycles are required for the configuration of chromosomes?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Chromosomes are configured during two division cycles. This is because meiosis involves two rounds of nuclear divisons.

11. What is non-disjunction?
a) Proper alignment
b) Sister chromatid formation
c) Failed alignment
d) Chromosome segregation
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The absence of recombination leads to the failed alignment of the chromosomes in the 1st meiotic division and as a result there is a high incidence of chromosome loss. This improper segregation of chromosomes is called nondisjunction.

12. For which biological phenomenon homologous recombination is critical?
a) Mitosis
b) Meiosis
c) Fragmentation
d) Sporing
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Homologous recombination is critical for meiosis during the pachytene stage of meiosis I. This is important for the introduction of genetic variations in every generations.

13. What are homologs?
a) Part of DNA
b) Pair of nucleus
c) Pair of chromosomes
d) Part of a cell
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Before cell division the cell has two copies of each chromosome, one of each was inherited from either parent. These are known as homologs.

14. What is the function of the Spo11 in meiotic recombination?
a) Introduction of mutation
b) Introduction of nick
c) Introduction of DSB
d) Introduction of lesion
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Spo11 gene encodes a protein that introduces DSBs in chromosomal DNA to initiate meiotic recombination. The Spo11 protein cuts the DNA at many chromosomal locations with little sequence selectivity but at a very specific time during meiosis.

15. How many subunits of Spo11 are involved in the process of cleavage of DNA?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The two subunits of Spo11 cleave the DNA two nucleotides apart on the two DNA strands. It makes staggered double strand break by cleavage.

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10a. Advanced WebDriver – Using Apache ANT

Hiya folks! Do you have ANTs in your build? Just kidding! Actually, I am not. Agreed that it sounds weird, but don’t fear as I am here! (Now, that’s what I call, rhyming.)

Today, let us ponder about what exactly this Apache ANT is and why it takes its place as an important building block in the construction of a WebDriver framework. By the end of this post, you should be able to handle any ANT project in general.

Jumping right in:

Another Neat Tool provided by The Apache Software Foundation is a build tool written in Java. It is old (Maven is winning this space and Gradle is getting along), quite popular and can still be found in most of the projects. The beauty of Apache ANT is that it only does what it is told to do. There isn’t much magic that is happening under the hood. (Beware, this can be a double-edged sword at times!)

To create an executable would mean,

  • Compiling the required .java files under the src folder
  • Creating the Manifest file for the JAR
  • Zipping all the .class files along with the manifest file
  • Using the jar command to create the executable

But with Apache ANT all these steps can be handled with a simple Target (we will see what a Target is, in a minute!).

Everything to be achieved is specified in an XML file, in a structured and modular way making it very easy to identify if something breaks. And this file is known as the famous, “build.xml”.

Apache ANT comes with a default buildfile named, build.xml. We can always edit or create a new XML file to suit our needs. This is basically a command-line tool. So, it is very easy to run Apache ANT from the command prompt using the command, “ant build_file_name.xml”. The best part here is, in case you did not rename the build.xml (just modified the provided default or created your own and named it build.xml), then just the command, “ant” would automatically know to look for build.xml and do what it is made for!

Apache ANT gives a lot of power, enough to cross the Thank You threshold! We can,

  • Clean up the project
  • Compile source code
  • Generate a distributable JAR or WAR
  • Handle code from version control systems such as CVS, SVN etc.
  • Echo messages to loggers and listeners at a specified level (error, warning, info, verbose, debug)
  • Create or delete directories
  • Copy, move, delete files
  • Can zip, unzip, tar, untar, unjar, unwar files
  • Execute JUnit tests, test scripts etc.
  • Execute a series of SQL statements via JDBC to a database
  • Generate JUnit test report

And do much much more…

And guess what, it sounds intimidating but every single thing that I have mentioned so far can be achieved with just the buildfile.

Time to juggle with the elements of the much-hyped, buildfiles. These are written in XML.

Sticky Note: Below information is enough to get familiarized with an Apache ANT buildfile. For in depth knowledge, please visit the Apache ANT user manual. (

Each buildfile has,

  1. Project – contains a minimum of one Target
  2. Target – set of Tasks that perform a unit of work
  3. Task – piece of code that can be executed

Sample build.xml file is as follows,

sample build.xml

Let us distill the buildfile one tag at a time.

Project: This has three attributes.

  1. name – The name of the project
  2. default – The default target that should be executed in case nothing is provided
  3. baseDir – The base directory from which the relative paths in the file are calculated. “.” refers to the current directory from which execution takes place

Target: As shown in the sample buildfile, a project can have one or more targets. Target is a set of Tasks. We can select which targets we would like ANT to execute by their names separated by commas. When no target is specified, then the default target is executed.

The important attribute to note here is “depends”. This specifies the target name that it is dependent on. For example, the compile target will execute only after its dependent, init target is executed. Thus, depends attribute specifies the order in which targets are to be executed.

Task: This is a piece of code that can be executed. Each task can have one or more attributes as key-value pairs.


<name attribute1=”value1attribute2=”value2” … />

name is the name of the task, attributeN and valueN are the attribute and value names respectively.

Here is a long list of built-in tasks that come right out of the box. We can code our own tasks as well. (Remember? It is all written in Java).

You must be wondering, why to go so deep into buildfiles rather than just installing it straight away and start some action! There is a reason for imparting so much ANT knowledge. And you will appreciate me for that as we go further in our journey. Just wait and watch…

Down to business now!

Step 1: Go to, ‘’ and click on ‘’ to download the .zip file under ‘Current Release of Ant’.

Download link

Step 2: Once the .zip archive is downloaded, extract all the files to a directory on your local machine.

Step 3: Set the environment variables, ANT_HOME and Path as follows,

Right click on ‘Computer’ -> Properties -> Advanced system settings -> ‘Advanced’ tab -> Environment Variables -> Click ‘New’ under system variables.

ANT_HOME is set to the path of the folder in which Apache ANT files are extracted.

System variable settings

Similarly edit the Path variable to include %ANT_HOME%bin.

Step 4: Verify if Apache ANT is installed by typing the following command in ‘Command Prompt’

ant -version

ANT version check in cmd

Step 5: Next task is to open Eclipse IDE,

  • Right-click on the Java project -> Export
  • Under ‘General’, select ‘Ant Buildfiles’ and click ‘Next’
  • Make sure the required project is selected
  • Uncheck ‘Create target to compile project using Eclipse compiler’ in order to remove any dependency on Eclipse

Generating ANT buildfile

Click on ‘Finish’ to see an eclipse auto-generated build.xml file.

And that’s it! You are all set to run your project as ANT build. It is laughably simple, isn’t it?

Sticky Note: Eclipse comes integrated with ANT. In order to make sure Eclipse’s ‘Ant Home’ points to the latest version of ANT, click on Windows -> Preferences -> Ant -> Runtime. Click on the ‘Classpath’ tab. Expand ‘Ant Home Entries’ and verify the path. If it is pointing to a different version, then click ‘Ant Home’ and browse the location of the folder in which Apache ANT files are extracted.

In our next post let us do just that and generate a JUnit report with the help of an ANT target.

Happy installing!

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