Program to implement Round Robin Algorithm in C

Let’s understand about Round Robin Algorithm or Round Robin Scheduling and how to implement this in C programming language.

 

What is Round Robin Algorithm / Round Robin Scheduling:

Round-robin (RR) is one of the algorithms employed by process and network schedulers in computing. As the term is generally used, time slices (also known as time quanta) are assigned to each process in equal portions and in circular order, handling all processes without priority (also known as cyclic executive). Round-robin scheduling is simple, easy to implement, and starvation-free. Round-robin scheduling can also be applied to other scheduling problems, such as data packet scheduling in computer networks. It is an operating system concept.

The name of the algorithm comes from the round-robin principle known from other fields, where each person takes an equal share of something in turn.

Process scheduling:

To schedule processes fairly, a round-robin scheduler generally employs time-sharing, giving each job a time slot or quantum (its allowance of CPU time), and interrupting the job if it is not completed by then. The job is resumed next time a time slot is assigned to that process. If the process terminates or changes its state to waiting during its attributed time quantum, the scheduler selects the first process in the ready queue to execute. In the absence of time-sharing, or if the quanta were large relative to the sizes of the jobs, a process that produced large jobs would be favored over other processes.

Round-robin algorithm is a pre-emptive algorithm as the scheduler forces the process out of the CPU once the time quota expires.

For example, if the time slot is 100 milliseconds, and job1 takes a total time of 250 ms to complete, the round-robin scheduler will suspend the job after 100 ms and give other jobs their time on the CPU. Once the other jobs have had their equal share (100 ms each), job1 will get another allocation of CPU time and the cycle will repeat. This process continues until the job finishes and needs no more time on the CPU.

  • Job1 = Total time to complete 250 ms (quantum 100 ms).
  1. First allocation = 100 ms.
  2. Second allocation = 100 ms.
  3. Third allocation = 100 ms but job1 self-terminates after 50 ms.
  4. Total CPU time of job1 = 250 ms

Consider the following table with the arrival time and execute time of the process with the quantum time of 100ms to understand the round-robin scheduling:

Process nameArrival timeExecute time
P00250
P150170
P213075
P3190100
P4210130
P535050

 

Round robin algorithm

 

Program to implement Round Robin Algorithm in C:

#include<stdio.h> 

int main()
{ 
int count,j,n,time,remain,flag=0,time_quantum;

int wait_time=0,turnaround_time=0,at[10],bt[10],rt[10];

printf("Enter Total Process:\t ");

scanf("%d",&n);

remain=n;

for(count=0;count<n;count++)

{

    printf("Enter Arrival Time and Burst Time for Process Process Number %d :",count+1);

    scanf("%d",&[count]);

    scanf("%d",&[count]);

    rt[count]=bt[count];

}

printf("Enter Time Quantum:\t");

scanf("%d",&time_quantum);

printf("\n\nProcess\t|Turnaround Time|Waiting Time\n\n");

for(time=0,count=0;remain!=0;)

{

    if(rt[count]<=time_quantum && rt[count]>0)

    {

        time+=rt[count];

        rt[count]=0;

        flag=1;

    }

    else if(rt[count]>0)

    {

        rt[count]-=time_quantum;

        time+=time_quantum;

    }

    if(rt[count]==0 && flag==1)

    {

        remain--;

        printf("P[%d]\t|\t%d\t|\t%d\n",count+1,time-at[count],time-at[count]-bt[count]);

        wait_time+=time-at[count]-bt[count];

        turnaround_time+=time-at[count];

        flag=0;

    }

    if(count==n-1)

        count=0;

    else if(at[count+1]<=time)

        count++;

    else

    count=0;

}

printf("\nAverage Waiting Time= %f\n",wait_time*1.0/n);

printf("Avg Turnaround Time = %f",turnaround_time*1.0/n);

return 0;
}

 

OUTPUT:

$ ./a.out
Enter Total Process :  4
Enter Arrival Time and Burst Time for Process Number 1: 0
9
Enter Arrival Time and Burst Time for Process Number 2: 1
5
Enter Arrival Time and Burst Time for Process Number 3: 2
3
Enter Arrival Time and Burst Time for Process Number 4: 3
4
Enter Time Quantum:  5
Process    | Turnaround Time          | Waiting Time
P[2]       |       9                  |     4
P[3]       |       11                 |     8
P[4]       |       14                 |     10
P[1]       |      21                  |     12

Average waiting Time= 8.500000
Avg turnaround Time= 13.750000

Comment in case of any query, suggestion or improvements.