C Programming Internship



If you are looking for an internship in C programming / algorithm areas, kindly run the C code mentioned below in your computer (preferably Linux ubuntu / redhat / fedora / centos / debian / suse, etc…). Your computer will seem to hang after 5 to 10 minutes of running this code or maybe the program will crash. So, run and review the following C-code under Linux platform & identify 10 Issues with this code.

After deep analysis of the above code and running the code in your computer, note down those 10 issues along with line numbers in a document and email that document to [email protected] with subject as “C Programming Internship Application – 10 Bugs Identified“. We will review your submission and if it’s correct, you would be called for an Internship in C Programming / Algorithm at Sanfoundry.




Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer and SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage & Cluster Administration, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals and Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him below:
LinkedIn | Facebook | Twitter | Google+



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VHDL Questions and Answers – Implementing Combinational Circuits with VHDL-2


This set of Tough VHDL Questions and Answers focuses on “Implementing Combinational Circuits with VHDL – 2”.

1. The process statement used in combinational circuits is called ______ process.
a) Combinational
b) Clocked
c) Unclocked
d) Sequential
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The process, in which no clock signal is used, is called a combinational process. In a combinational process, the sensitivity list doesn’t include any clock signal for synchronization. In the case of sequential circuits the clock signal is used.

2. Why we need to include all the input signals in the sensitivity list of the process?
a) To monitor the output continuously
b) To monitor the input continuously
c) To make the circuit synthesizable by EDA tools
d) No special purpose
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: If the input signals are not in the sensitivity list of the process, then one can’t monitor the change in input. Any change in input signal will not change the output simultaneously by running the process again.

3. If only two bit vectors are allowed to use in the VHDL code, then how many number of MUX will be required to implement 4 to 1 MUX?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Since we have inputs with two bits only, so we can use 2 to 1 MUX to implement the required design. So, to design 4 to 1 MUX, we need 3 2 to 1 MUX and hence we can get the desired circuit by using 3 multiplexers.

4. A package is designed called mux4to1_package, in which a component called mux4to1 is defined, which is a 4 to 1 multiplexer. Now a user wants to design a 16 to 1 MUX by using the same component only, how many times he needs to use the PORT MAP statement?
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 5
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The problem statement says that a 16:1 MUX is to be designed by using 4:1 multiplexers only. This can be done by using 5 numbers of 4 to 1 multiplexers. Here, 4 MUXs are required to collect all the inputs and one is used to select one from the 4 multiplexers outputs.

5. In designing a 2 to 1 demultiplexer with input d, output y and select line s, which of the following is a correct process statement?
a) PROCESS(d)
b) PROCESS(d(0), d(1), s)
c) PROCESS(d(0), d(1))
d) PROCESS(d, s, y)
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In a combinational process, the sensitivity list must include all the inputs. For a 2 to 1 MUX, there must be 2 inputs which are d(0) and d(1); also the process should be sensitive to the select line, so s also should be in the sensitivity list.

6. The given code represents a convertor. Which kind of convertor it is?

a) Gray to BCD
b) 7 segment to BCD
c) BCD to gray
d) BCD to 7 segment display
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Clearly, it is a BCD to 7 segment display convertor. This circuit takes a 4 bit BCD input and convert it into 7 bits output which may be used for LED output and hence the 7 segment display can be operated.

7. What is the function of below code?

a) To count number of ones in the given data
b) To count number of zeroes in the given data
c) To reverse the order of given data
d) To perform binary multiplication of two data inputs
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Because a loop is used and din is monitored for every bit. If any bit in the din is one then the counter is incremented by one. Therefore, the code is counting the number of ones in a given vector of bits.

8. What will be the value of count output, if the data din is 11001111?

a) 6
b) 0110
c) 2
d) 0010
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The count is a signal of bit vector type and hence the output will be a stream of bits. In this case there are 6 ones in the input, which corresponds to 0110 in the binary number system.

9. In the combinational process, the use of output signal in the sensitivity list is illegal.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Though it is not illegal to use any output signal in the combinational process; but it is not good practice to do. The change in output will cause the process to run again which is not desirable. We can use the output signal in sensitivity list but it will not give desirable results.

10. A parity generator is a combinational circuit and is designed by using combinational process.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: A parity generator is a combinational circuit since its output depends on the present input only. Also, no clock signal is required to implement and synchronize the parity generator so it can be implemented by combinational process.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – VHDL.

To practice Tough questions and answers on all areas of VHDL, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.



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Gene Manipulation Questions and Answers – Gene Targeting and Transfer in Plants


This set of Gene Manipulation Assessment Questions and Answers focuses on “Gene Targeting and Transfer in Plants”.

1. When was the first stable transmission of DNA into plants reported?
a) 1971
b) 1981
c) 1940
d) 1950
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The introduction of foreign DNA into a plant followed by stable transmission through the germline was first demonstrated in 1981.

2. Which was the first transgenic plant generated?
a) Cumin
b) Tobacco
c) Basil
d) Tomato
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The first transgenic plant generated was that of tobacco. Soil bacterium was used as a vector for transferring exogenous DNA into the plant.

3. Plant viruses are _______ vectors.
a) Integrative
b) Replacement
c) Episomal
d) Artificial
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Plant viruses have been developed as versatile episomal vectors, allowing high level transient gene expression.

4. Differentiated plant tissue shows high degree of _________
a) Inactivity
b) Toxicity
c) Growth
d) Plasticity
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: A fundamental difference between animals and plants is that organized, differentiated plant tissue shows a high degree of developmental plasticity.

5. Callus tissue is derived from ________
a) Trunk
b) Root
c) Leaf
d) Seed
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Seed derived callus tissue may be able to regenerate an entirely new plant under appropriate culture conditions. Depending on different species, different cultures can be obtained.

6. Tissue culture step is necessary for producing transgenic plants.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: For most plant species, some form of tissue culture step is therefore necessary for the successful production of transgenic plants.

7. Need of tissue culture is minimized or eliminated if ___________ is used.
a) Leaf
b) Whole plant
c) Root
d) Seed
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: There is an increasing interest in the use of whole plant transformation strategies, in which the need for tissue culture is minimized or eliminated.

8. In which cultures, cells are maintained in an undifferentiated state?
a) Leaf
b) Root
c) Stem
d) Callus
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Callus cultures are established under conditions that maintain cells in an undifferentiated state. Plant tissue culture is required for most procedures.

9. Explants are plant ________________
a) Living tissue
b) Stems
c) Roots
d) Seeds
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Tissue culture is the process whereby small pieces of living tissue (explants) are isolated from an organism and grown aseptically.

10. Undetermined cells are capable of _____________
a) Growth
b) Proliferation
c) Toxication
d) Protein production
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: For successful plant tissue culture it is best to start with an explant rich in undetermined cells because such cells are capable of rapid proliferation.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Vector Biology & Gene Manipulation.

To practice all areas of Gene Manipulation Assessment Questions, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.



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Gene Manipulation Questions and Answers – Transgenic Technology


This set of Gene Manipulation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Transgenic Technology”.

1. Transgenic technology is particularly advanced in _________
a) Plants
b) Animals
c) Mice
d) Bacteria
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Transgenic technology is particularly advanced in mice, where combinations of gene targeting, site-specific recombination and inducible transgene expression make it possible.

2. Inducible transgene expression controls ______ genes.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Inducible transgene expression makes it possible to activate and inactivate both transgenes and endogenous genes in a conditional manner.

3. Gene silencing involves ___________ genes.
a) Inhibitory
b) Activator
c) Inducer
d) Carcinogenic
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Gene silencing does not involve direct modification of the target gene but rather the expression of inhibitory genes whose products interfere with expression of the target.

4. Which of the following expression allows the control of transgene expression?
a) Repressible
b) Inducible
c) Altered
d) Toxic
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Inducible expression system allows transgene expression to be controlled by physical stimuli or the application of small modulators.

5. What is used to restrict transgene expression?
a) Promoter
b) Inducer
c) Silencer
d) Reporter
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In both animals and plants, cell or tissue specific promoters are used to restrict transgene expression to certain areas of the organism.

6. In __________ it is useful to restrict transgene expression to mammary glands.
a) Reptiles
b) Plants
c) Xenopus
d) Mammals
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In mammals, it is useful to restrict the transgene expression to mammary glands. This is done so that recombinant proteins can be recovered from milk.

7. In plants, it is useful to restrict transgene expression to seeds.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: It is useful to restrict transgene expression in plants to the seeds. Seeds provide a stable environment for protein accumulation.

8. Drosophila heat-shock promoter is an example of ___________
a) Synthetic
b) Toxic
c) Naturally occurring
d) Rare
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Most cells respond to elevated temperature by synthesizing heat-shock proteins, which include molecular chaperones and other proteins.

9. Hsp70 promoter of Drosophila, _________ the gene.
a) Acidifies
b) Neutralizes
c) Inactivates
d) Activates
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In transgenic flies, any gene linked to the hsp70 promoter is more or less inactive at room temperature, but high-level expression in all cells can be induced.

10. Inducible promoters do not respond to chemicals.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Most inducible promoters used to control transgene expression respond to chemicals, which must be supplied to the transformed cells.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Vector Biology & Gene Manipulation.

To practice all areas of Vector Biology & Gene Manipulation, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.



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Gene Manipulation Questions and Answers – Gene Inactivation and Inhibition


This set of Gene Manipulation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Gene Inactivation and Inhibition”.

1. Many gene inactivation strategies don’t require gene modification.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Many strategies for gene inactivation do not require the direct modification of the target gene. Traditional gene transfer strategies add new genetic information to the genome.

2. Antisense RNA blocks the activity of _______
a) DNA
b) mRNA
c) CDNA
d) RNA
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Antisense RNA blocks the activity of mRNA in a stoichiometric manner. Antisense RNA has the opposite sense to mRNA.

3. Presence of antisense and complementary sense RNA can lead to the formation of _______
a) Mutation
b) Duplex
c) Carcinogens
d) Protein
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The presence of complementary sense and antisense RNA molecules in the same cells can lead to the formation of a stable duplex.

4. Antisense RNA can be used in eukaryotes.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Antisense RNA is used as a natural mechanism to regulate gene expression in a number of prokaryote systems and to a lesser extent in other organisms.

5. Which type of inhibition can be achieved using antisense RNA?
a) Stable
b) Unstable
c) Transient
d) Integrative
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Transient inhibition of particular genes can be achieved by directly introducing antisense RNA or antisense oligonucleotides into cells.

6. What is MBP?
a) Inducer
b) Protein
c) Promoter
d) Gene
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: An expression cassette was constructed in which the mouse myelin basic protein CDNA was inverted with respect to the promoter.

7. Which gene is targeted in transgenic tomato plant?
a) Mg
b) Pg
c) Gfp
d) Mbp
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Smith in 1988 generated transgenic tomato plants carrying an antisense construct targeting the endogenous polygalacturonase gene.

8. Level of inhibition does not depend on ________ of antisense RNA.
a) Size
b) Temperature
c) Ph
d) Range
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The level of inhibition apparently does not depend on the size of the antisense RNA or the part of the endogenous gene to which it is complimentary.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Vector Biology & Gene Manipulation.

To practice all areas of Vector Biology & Gene Manipulation, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.



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Gene Manipulation Questions and Answers – Large Scale Mutagenesis and Interference


This set of Gene Manipulation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Large Scale Mutagenesis and Interference”.

1. Mutations can be introduced by ____________
a) Cloning
b) Recombination
c) Ligation
d) Gene targeting
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Mutations can be introduced into predefined genes in vivo through a process termed as gene targeting which involves homologous recombination.

2. Gene-knockout is the generation of a null-gene.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: When the aim is to inactivate the target gene completely and generate a null allele, the term gene knockout is often used.

3. Embryonic stem cells are __________
a) Totipotent
b) Pluripotent
c) Dead
d) Multipotent
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Embryonic stem cells can be cultured like any established cell line, but they are derived from the very early mouse embryo and are therefore pluripotent.

4. The only organism in which systematic gene targeting has been achieved is ____________
a) Mouse
b) Drosophila
c) Fish
d) Yeast
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The only organism in which systematic gene targeting has been achieved is the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Its genome contains about 6000 open reading frames.

5. The EUROFAN project involves the use of _________ generated cassettes.
a) PCR
b) Ultracentrifugation
c) Electroporation
d) Cloning
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The EUROFAN project involves the use of PCR-generated cassettes in which a selectable marker is placed between 50 basepair elements.

6. Genome-wide random mutagenesis is applicable to _________
a) Fish
b) Mammals
c) All organisms
d) Bacteria
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Saturation mutagenesis has been used for many years to identify mutations affecting specific crucial biological processes.

7. Insertional mutagenesis facilitates __________
a) Cloning
b) PCR
c) Recombination
d) Centrifugation
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Insertional mutagenesis leaves a DNA tag in the interrupted gene, which facilitates cloning and gene identification. It is the most popular mutagenesis strategy.

8. Ribozymes are _________ molecules.
a) Toxic
b) Large
c) DNA
d) Catalytic
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Ribozymes are catalytic molecules that destroy targeted MRNAs. They carry out site-specific cleavage and ligation reactions.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Vector Biology & Gene Manipulation.

To practice all areas of Vector Biology & Gene Manipulation, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.



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